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EMF Study
(Database last updated on Jun 13, 2019)

ID Number 752
Study Type In Vivo
Model NTP/NIEHS Long Term Animal Study: 800, 1900 MHz (GSM, CDMA) exposure to rats and mice and analysis of pathology and dosimetry.
Details

Rats and mice (male and female, n = 100-200 per group, 3000 in total) exposed to 800 and 1900 MHz (GSM, CDMA) RF from gestation day-6 to two years of age using large reverberation chambers. Three RF exposure levels will be used, with the highest exposure level determined by an initial thermal pilot study (exposing animals to RF 20 hrs / day for 5 days at various RF energy levels to determine the threshold of a 1 degree temperature rise). Following the determination of appropriate RF exposure groups, animals will be exposed chronically for 20 hrs / day for 2 years. End-of-study analysis will include whole body histopathology as well as other toxicity endpoints (blood brain barrier permeability, lens optical quality, miconuclei induction, and DNA strand breaks in brain cells). AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Capstick et al. 2017 (IEEE #6715): In this paper, we present the novel design features, their technical implementation, and an evaluation of the radio frequency exposure systems developed for the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences studies on the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of second and third generation mobile-phone signals. The system requirements for this second-year NTP cancer bioassay study were the tightly controlled lifetime exposure of rodents (1568 rats and 1512 mice) to three power levels plus sham simulating typical daily, and higher, exposures of users of GSM and CDMA (IS95) signals. Reverberation chambers and animal housing were designed to allow extended exposure time per day for free-roaming individually housed animals. The performance of the chamber was characterized in terms of homogeneity, stirred to unstirred energy and efficiency. The achieved homogeneity was 0.59 and 0.48 dB at 900 and 1900 MHz, respectively. The temporal variation in the electric field strength was optimized to give similar characteristics to that of the power control of a phone in a real network using the two stirrers. Experimental dosimetry was performed to validate the SAR sensitivity and determine the SAR uniformity throughout the exposure volume; SAR uniformities of 0.46 and 0.40 dB, respectively, for rats and mice were achieved. AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Gong et al. 2017 (IEEE #6716): In this paper, we present the detailed life-time dosimetry analysis for rodents exposed in the reverberation exposure system designed for the two-year cancer bioassay study conducted by the National Toxicology Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The study required the well-controlled and characterized exposure of individually housed, unrestrained mice at 1900 MHz and rats at 900 MHz, frequencies chosen to give best uniformity exposure of organs and tissues. The wbSAR, the peak spatial SAR, and the organ specific SAR as well as the uncertainty and variation due to the exposure environment, differences in the growth rates, and animal posture were assessed. Compared to the wbSAR, the average exposure of the high-water-content tissues (blood, heart, lung) were higher by $\sim$4 dB, while the low-loss tissues (bone and fat) were less by $\sim$9 dB. The maximum uncertainty over the exposure period for the SAR was estimated to be <49% (k = 2) for the rodents whereas the relative uncertainty between the exposure groups was <14% (k = 1). The instantaneous variation (averaged over 1 min) was <13% (k = 1), which is small compared to other long term exposure research projects. These detailed dosimetric results empowers comparison with other studies and provides a reference for studies of long-term biological effects of exposure. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Wyde et al. 2018 (IEEE #6922): Under the conditions of this 2-year whole-body exposure study, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of GSM-modulated cell phone RFR at 900 MHz in male Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats based on the incidences of malignant schwannoma in the heart. The incidences of adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in the prostate gland, malignant glioma and benign or malignant granular cell tumors in the brain, adenoma of the pars distalis in the pituitary gland, pheochromocytoma (benign, malignant, or complex combined) in the adrenal medulla, and pancreatic islet cell adenoma or carcinoma (combined) may have been related to cell phone RFR exposure. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of GSM-modulated cell phone RFR at 900 MHz in female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats administered 1.5, 3, or 6 W/kg. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of CDMA modulated cell phone RFR at 900 MHz in male Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats based on the incidences of malignant schwannoma in the heart. The incidences of malignant glioma in the brain, adenoma of the pars distalis in the pituitary gland, and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) of the liver may have been related to cell phone RFR exposure. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of CDMA-modulated cell phone RFR at 900 MHz in female Hsd:Sprague Dawley SD rats based on the incidences of malignant glioma in the brain and pheochromocytoma (benign, malignant, or complex combined) in the adrenal medulla. Increases in nonneoplastic lesions in the heart, brain, and prostate gland of male rats, and of the heart, thyroid gland, and adrenal gland in female rats occurred with exposures to GSM cell phone RFR at 900 MHz. Increases in nonneoplastic lesions of the heart, brain, and prostate gland occurred in males, and of the brain in females exposed to CDMA cell phone RFR at 900 MHz. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Wyde et al. 2018 (IEEE #6923): Under the conditions of these 2-year studies, there was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of GSM-modulated cell phone RFR at 1,900 MHz in male B6C3F1/N mice based on the combined incidences of fibrosarcoma, sarcoma, or malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the skin and the incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma (combined) in the lung. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of GSM-modulated cell phone RFR at 1,900 MHz in female B6C3F1/N mice based on the incidences of malignant lymphoma (all organs). There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of CDMA-modulated cell phone RFR at 1,900 MHz in male B6C3F1/N mice based on the incidences of hepatoblastoma of the liver. There was equivocal evidence of carcinogenic activity of CDMA-modulated cell phone RFR at 1,900 MHz in female B6C3F1/N mice based on the incidences of malignant lymphoma (all organs). Exposure to GSM- or CDMA-modulated cell phone RFR at 1,900 MHz did not increase the incidence of any nonneoplastic lesions in male or female B6C3F1/N mice.

Findings Ongoing
Status Ongoing
Start Date Sep 1, 2005
End Date Dec 1, 2009
Principal Investigator Illinois Inst Technology Research Inst.
Funding Agency NIEHS, USA, NTP, USA
Country UNITED STATES
References
  • Wyde, ME et al. , (2016) bioRxiv preprint (Draft):74 pages-May 19, 2016 Draft
  • Capstick, MH et al. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility., (2017) Mar 17, 2017:-12 pages
  • Gong, Y et al. IEEE Trans Electromagn Compat. , (2017) 17 March 2017:-(11 pages)
  • Wyde, ME et al. NTP TR (Technical Report) 595 (DRAFT)., (2018) :381 pages-
  • Wyde, ME et al. NTP TR Technical Report 596 (DRAFT)., (2018) :270 pages-
  • Labos, C et al. Skepital Inquirer, (2018) 42:12-14
  • Wyde, ME et al. Bioelectromagnetics., (2018) 39:190-199
  • Comments

    Exposure systems (reverberation chambers) designed by Kuster

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