AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Celiker et al. 2016 (IEEE #6557): INTRODUCTION: The use of mobile phones has become widespread in recent years. Although beneficial from the communication viewpoint, the electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by mobile phones may cause unwanted biological changes in the human body.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of 2100MHz Global System for Mobile communication (GSM-like) electromagnetic field (EMF), generated by an EMF generator, on the auditory system of rats by using electrophysiological, histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods.
METHODS: Fourteen adult Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The rats were divided randomly into two groups of seven rats each. The study group was exposed continuously for 30days to a 2100MHz EMF with a signal level (power) of 5.4dBm (3.47mW) to simulate the talk mode on a mobile phone. The control group was not exposed to the aforementioned EMF. After 30days, the Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) of both groups were recorded and the rats were sacrificed. The cochlear nuclei were evaluated by histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods.
RESULTS: The ABR records of the two groups did not differ significantly. The histopathologic analysis showed increased degeneration signs in the study group (p=0.007). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased apoptotic index in the study group compared to that in the control group (p=0.002).
CONCLUSION: The results support that long-term exposure to a GSM-like 2100MHz EMF causes an increase in neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the auditory system.
AUTHORS' LETTER: Mortazavi et al. 2017 (IEEE #6697): Dear Editor,
We have read the article by Celiker et al. entitled Effects of exposure to 2100MHz GSM-like radiofre- quency electromagnetic field on auditory system of rats that is published in Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2016.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjorl.2016.10.004.1 Celiker et al. evaluated the effects of 2100MHz Global System for Mobile communication Electromagnetic Field (EMF), generated by an EMF generator on the auditory system of rats. Despite its challenging theme and well-structured content, the paper authored by Celiker et al. has some shortcomings. The first shortcoming of this study comes from this point that the authors have only investigated the effects of 2 modes (i.e. talk mode and switched-off mode). Therefore, data about 2 other remaining modes of standby and Talk+Wi-Fi (talking using a mobile phone that is connected to the Wi-Fi network) are missing. It is worth noting that in contrast with the earlier reports,2 it has been shown that personal exposure to EMF can be affected by ones own mobile phone in stand-by mode.3 Furthermore, due to rapid advances in telecommunication technology, mobile phones in modern life are much more frequently used for surfing the Internet than calling. There- fore, we usually use our mobile phones in the talk-mode while it is connected to the Wi-Fi network, simultaneously.
Another shortcoming of this study is also due to the tech- nical properties of the EMF generator used in this study.
The authors stated that The RF-EMF group was exposed to a continuous EMF produced by an EMF generator (Anritsu MG3670B, Japan) for 30 days. The generator was adjusted at a signal level (power) of 5.4dBm (3.47mW) and a fre- quency of 2100 MHz to simulate the talk mode on a mobile phone. It should be noted that the MG3670B digital mod- ulation signal generator which operates in the frequency range of 300kHz-2.25GHz is fundamentally designed for testing and evaluating the digital mobile communications equipment and related devices. In this light, the authors should provide some basic information about modulation (in case this device is used with modulation) and other techni- cal specifications which show that MG3670B could simulate a GSM mobile phone.
AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Talebnejad et al. 2018 (IEEE #6975): Purpose: Mobile cell phones are used extensively these days, and their microwave (MW) radiation has been shown to affect the eye. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MW radiation on rabbit retina.
Methods: This experimental study (concluded in 2015) was conducted on 40 adult white New Zealand rabbits. A Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) cell phone simulator was used for MW irradiation. The rabbits were randomized into five groups (8 in each) and treated as follows: Group 1: no irradiation (sham); Group 2: irradiation at 10 cm for 1 day; Group 3: irradiation at 30 cm for 1 day; Group 4: irradiation at 10 cm for 3 days; and Group 5: irradiation at 30 cm for 3 days. Scotopic and photopic electroretinography (ERG) responses were obtained at baseline and 7 days after the last exposure. Then all the rabbits were euthanized, and their eyes were enucleated and sent for pathology examination. KruskaleWallis and Chi-Square tests were used to evaluate intergroup differences in ERG parameters and histological findings, respectively.
Results: ERG responses obtained 7 days after irradiation did not show any statistically significant difference between the groups (P > 0.1, for all tested parameters). There were statistically non-significant trends toward greater changes in the MW irradiated eyes. In pathological examination, retina was normal with no sign of degeneration or infiltration. Ciliary body congestion was observed in greater fraction of those who received higher MW doses. (P ¼ 0.005).
Conclusions: Histopathologically, cell phone simulated MW irradiation had no significant detrimental effect on the retina. However, ciliary body congestion was observed in greater fraction of those who received higher MW doses. Although there was no significant difference between posttreatment mean ERG values, there were statistically non-significant trends toward greater changes in the MW irradiated eyes.