AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Martinez et al. 2012 (IEEE #5261): A number of studies have reported that extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) can modulate proliferative processes in vitro; however, the transduction mechanisms implicated in such phenomena remain to be identified. The present study was aimed to determine whether a 50 Hz, 100 ¼T MF can induce cell proliferation in the human neuroblastoma line NB69, and whether the signaling pathway MAPK-ERK1/2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase - Extracellular-Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 and 2) is involved in that proliferative response. The cultures were exposed intermittently or continuously to the MF for a 63-hour duration. The continuous treatment did not induce significant changes in cell proliferation. In contrast, intermittent exposure caused statistically significant increase in the percent of cells in phase S of the cell cycle, followed by a significant increase in cell number. The intermittent treatment also induced an early, transient and repetitive activation of ERK1/2 that could be involved in the proliferative effects. In fact, both the proliferative response and the repeated activation of ERK1/2 were blocked by PD98059, the specific inhibitor of MEK (ERK kinases 1 and 2). Taken together, the described results indicate that a 50 Hz, 100 ¼T MF can stimulate proliferation in NB69 cells by triggering MAPK-ERK1/ 2 signaling at each of the "On" periods of an intermittent exposure.
AUTHORS' ABSTRACT: Deans, Powell, Jefferys 2007 (IEEE #6456): The sensitivity of brain tissue to weak extracellular electric fields is important in assessing potential public health risks of extremely low frequency (ELF) fields, and potential roles of endogenous fields in brain function. Here we determine the effect of applied electric fields on membrane potentials and coherent network oscillations. Applied DC electric fields change transmembrane potentials in CA3 pyramidal cell somata by 0.18 mV per V m(-1) applied. AC sinusoidal electric fields have smaller effects on transmembrane potentials: sensitivity drops as an exponential decay function of frequency. At 50 and 60 Hz it is approximately 0.4 that for DC fields. Effects of fields of < or = 16 V m(-1) peak-to-peak (p-p) did not outlast application. Kainic acid (100 nm) induced coherent network oscillations in the beta and gamma bands (15-100 Hz). Applied fields of > or = 6 V m(-1) p-p (2.1 V m(-1) r.m.s.) shifted the gamma peak in the power spectrum to centre on the applied field frequency or a subharmonic. Statistically significant effects on the timing of pyramidal cell firing within the oscillation appeared at distinct thresholds: at 50 Hz, 1 V m(-1) p-p (354 mV m(-1) r.m.s.) had statistically significant effects in 71% of slices, and 0.5 V m(-1) p-p (177 mV m(-1) r.m.s.) in 20%. These threshold fields are consistent with current environmental guidelines. They correspond to changes in somatic potential of approximately 70 microV, below membrane potential noise levels for neurons, demonstrating the emergent properties of neuronal networks can be more sensitive than measurable effects in single neurons.