Authors' abstract: Ntzouni et al. 2011 (IEEE #5126): The effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields (EMFs) were studied on a non-spatial memory task (Object Recognition Task - ORT) that requires entorhinal cortex function. The task was applied to three groups of mice Mus musculus C57BL/6 (exposed, sham-exposed and control) combined with 3 different radiation exposure protocols. In the first protocol designated "acute exposure", mice 45 days old (PND45 - postnatal day 45) were exposed to mobile phone (MP) radiation (SAR value 0.22W/kg) during the habituation, the training and the test sessions of the ORT, but not during the 10min inter-trial interval (ITI) where consolidation of stored object information takes place. On the second protocol designated "chronic exposure-I", the same mice were exposed for 17 days for 90min/per day starting at PND55 to the same MP radiation. ORT recognition memory was performed at PND72 with radiation present only during the ITI phase. In the third protocol designated "chronic exposure-II", mice continued to be exposed daily under the same conditions up to PND86 having received radiation for 31 days. One day later the ORT test was performed without irradiation present in any of the sessions. The ORT-derived discrimination indices in all three exposure protocols revealed a major effect on the "chronic exposure-I" suggesting a possible severe interaction of EMF with the consolidation phase of recognition memory processes. This may imply that the primary EMF target may be the information transfer pathway connecting the entorhinal-parahippocampal regions which participate in the ORT memory task.
Authors' abstract: Fragopoulou et al. 2010 (IEEE #5127):Extended work has been performed worldwide on the effects of mobile phone radiation upon rats' cognitive functions, however there is great controversy to the existence or not of deficits. The present work has been designed in order to test the effects of mobile phone radiation on spatial learning and memory in mice Mus musculus Balb/c using the Morris water maze (a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task), since there is just one other study on mice with very low SAR level (0.05W/kg) showing no effects. We have applied a 2h daily dose of pulsed GSM 900MHz radiation from commercially available mobile phone for 4 days at SAR values ranging from 0.41 to 0.98W/kg. Statistical analysis revealed that during learning, exposed animals showed a deficit in transferring the acquired spatial information across training days (increased escape latency and distance swam, compared to the sham-exposed animals, on the first trial of training days 2-4). Moreover, during the memory probe-trial sham-exposed animals showed the expected preference for the target quadrant, while the exposed animals showed no preference, indicating that the exposed mice had deficits in consolidation and/or retrieval of the learned spatial information. Our results provide a basis for more thorough investigations considering reports on non-thermal effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs).